papers stacked

APA Style Format Examples

Unless you love editing like we do, reading the Sixth Edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association can be a little dry. We've found that most students writing their dissertations or thesis papers are looking for simple APA style format examples.

 

This page lists APA Style reference examples alphabetically. Note. All examples are for APA Style 6th Edition. Since many Canadian universities accept Canada Post's two-letter abbreviations for provinces and territories, we have sometimes used those in our examples. Consult with your faculty supervisor or program to confirm your school's preferences.

 

If you are new to APA Style and don't know where to start, check out our APA Reference Formatting Tutorial. We discuss basic forms and elements of reference list entries.

 

We are here to help! Click here to contact us directly.

APA Style Guide book cover

Available on Amazon.ca

Available on Amazon.com

 

8 or More Authors

For entries up to seven authors, list all names in full. For eight or more, list the first six, add an ellipsis, then add the last author's name. Note that unlike other multiple-author entries, there is no ampersand before the last name.

  • Covinsky, K. E., Palmer, R. M., Fortinsky, R. H., Counsell, S. R., Stewart, A .L., Kresevic, D., . . . Landefeld, C. S. (2003). Loss of independence in activities of daily living in older adults hospitalized with medical illnesses: Increased vulnerability with age. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 51(4), 451–458. doi:10.1177/036354657400216408

Text citation: (Covinsky et al., 2003)

 

Adapted By

When a work is adapted, include that description as you would an editor or translator:

  • Aesop. (n.d.). The fox and the grapes. In J. Fields (Adapter), Aesop’s fables (pp. 12–13). Retrieved from http://books.google.ca/books?id=IYdCMfs9hgEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=aesop's+fables&hl=en&sa=X&ei=KxvIUK7hI8K6igLX04CoCQ&ved=0CDsQ6wEwAA

Annual Report

Follow the same format as books and reports when referencing annual reports in APA Style:

  • Grace, A. (2010). Annual report: 2009–2010. Edmonton: University of Alberta, Faculty of Medicine & Dentistry, Office of Development & Alumni Affairs.

Artwork, Illustrations, Photos

Need to reference a painting, sculpture, or other artwork? Here's the basic form:

  • Artist, A. (1948). Title of work [Description]. City, ST: Location Name.
  • Artist, A. (1948). Title of work [Description]. Retrieved from http://example.com
  • Yuxweluptun, P. (1984). Burying another face of racism on First Nations soil [Oil on canvas]. Vancouver, BC: Vancouver Art Gallery.

Text citation: (Artist, year).

 

Audiovisual Materials

Audiovisual materials include video clips, television shows, and movies; podcasts, music, or other audio recordings; and artwork, illustrations, photos, and other images.

 

Author as Publisher

When the author is also the publisher (often the case with organizations), write out the organization name in full in the author position and follow with a period. In the publisher position, write "Author."

  • American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
  • Justice Institute of British Columbia. (2009). Introduction to emergency management exercise design. New Westminster, BC: Author.

Note. Even if you have introduced an abbreviation for the organization in the text, write the name in full in the references.

Self-published books follow a similar format:

  • Wieliczko, J., & Wieliczko, A. (2007). Moje rodzinne drzewo [My family tree]. Baranowicze, Belarus: Author.

Bible or Other Classical Works

Classical works do not require reference list entries; only a text citation is needed. It might look something like this:

  • Both Ephrat and Ephraim appear in Genesis 48 (The Jerusalem Bible), in which the dying Jacob tells his son Joseph the story of the death and burial of Rachel, Jacob’s favourite wife and Joseph’s mother, at Ephrat, near Bethlehem (Genesis 48:7).

Blog Post

Include the full date and add a notation in square brackets following the title so readers can easily identify what you're citing. A tweet or twitter post is similar.

  • Lastname, D. (Year, Month Day). Title of post [blog post]. Retrieved from http://example.com
  • Imagine Canada. (2010, December 6). Statistics Canada releases most recent charitable donor stats [blog post]. Retrieved from http://blog.imaginecanada.ca/2010/12/06/charitable-donations-2009/

Book

Follow these basic forms for citing books in APA Style. The first two are for print copies; the third and fourth are for copies retrieved online.

  • Lastname, A. B. (Year). Title of book. City, ST: Publisher.
  • Lastname, A. B. (Year). Title of book. City, Country: Publisher.
  • Lastname, A. B. (Year). Title of book [E-reader version, if applicable]. Retrieved from http://example.com
  • Lastname, A. B. (Year). Title of book [E-reader version, if applicable]. doi:10.1234

Book With Editions

Follow the basic form for books but add the edition number (or volume number) in parentheses before the period.

  • Lastname, A. B. (2007). Title of book (3rd ed.). City, ST: Publisher.
  • Merriam, S. B. (2009). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation (Rev. ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Note. Although the title is italicized, the parenthetical information is not. Microsoft Word automatically superscripts the text of ordinals written as 1st, 2nd, 3rd, etc. Select the text and press CTRL+SHIFT+PLUS SIGN to revert this change. You want 1st, not 1st.

 

Book With Editors

Most edited books are compilations. The title of the article or chapter goes in the title position, and the book title goes into the source position (see our APA Reference Formatting Tutorial). Author names are inverted but editor names are not.

  • Foucault, M. (1974). Power as knowledge. In C. Lembert (Ed.), Social theory: The multicultural and classic readings (2nd ed.; pp. 475–481). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
  • Jäger, S., & Mater, F. (2009). Theoretical and methodological aspects of Foucauldian critical discourse analysis and dispositive analysis. In R. Wodak & M. Meyer (Eds.), Methods of critical discourse analysis (2nd ed.; pp. 34–61). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

If an edited book is not a compilation, you can just add the editors' names in parentheses after the book title.

  • Kohut, H. (1984). How does analysis cure? (A. Goldberg & P. Stepansky, Eds.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  • Richens, M. (2014). Margot's memoir: Surviving Hitler and Stalin (D. C. Jones & D. E. Lund, Eds.). Victoria, BC: FriesenPress.

Book Review

  • Callaghan, T. D. (2010). David versus Goliath: Addressing contradictory Catholic doctrine head on [Review of the book Creating safe environments for LGBT students: A Catholic schools perspective]. Journal of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Youth, 7(1), 85–90.

Chapter in a Book

If the chapter comes from a book where each chapter is written by different authors (and the whole thing is put together by an editor), you must provide a separate reference for each chapter cited; see Book With Editors for additional samples. If you read from only one chapter but the author wrote the entire book, then provide a reference for the whole book (even if the book is 500 pages and you read only 15 of them; see Book for sample references).

  • Lastname, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In B. B. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. xx–xx). City, ST: Publisher.
  • Lastname, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In B. B. Editor (Ed.), Title of book [E-reader version, if applicable] (pp. xx–xx). Retrieved from http://example.com
  • Lastname, A. A. (Year). Title of chapter. In B. B. Editor (Ed.), Title of book [E-reader version, if applicable] (pp. xx–xx). doi:10.1234
  • Ortiz, G. A., Kopp, D., & Willenbucher, T. (1995). Instrument training using a computer-based simulation device at Lufthansa Airlines. In R. S. Jensen & L. A. Rakovan (Eds.), Proceedings of the eighth international symposium on aviation psychology (pp. 1047–1050). Columbus: The Ohio State University.

Note. In the example, OH is not included in the location following Columbus because the state name (Ohio) is included in the name of the university.

 

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders follows the basic form of Author as Publisher and Organization as Author.

 

DSM-III

  • American Psychiatric Association. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

DSM-III-R

  • American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed., revised). Washington, DC: Author.

DSM-IV

  • American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

DSM-IV-R

  • American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revised). Washington, DC: Author.

DSM-5

  • American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

Note. Unlike previous versions, the current version does not use Roman numerals: DSM-5, not DSM-V. Microsoft Word automatically superscripts the text of ordinals (3rd, 4th, 5th, etc.). Select the text and press CTRL+SHIFT+PLUS SIGN to revert this change. You want 5th ed., not 5th ed.

Text citations: If you cite the DSM frequently, you can abbreviate both the title and the organization. Add the abbreviation(s) the first time you cite and use the abbreviation(s) thereafter.

  • First citation: As reported in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychological Association [APA], 2013)...
  • Second and subsequent citations: Breaking with tradition, the DSM-5 (APA, 2013) does not...

 

Digital Object Identifiers (DOI)

The DOI prefix identifies the organization; the suffix identifies the journal and article in question. If you're reading your APA 6 style guide, sections 6.31 and 6.32 instruct you to format DOIs according to CrossRef's initial recommendations:

  • Cant, P. R., & Cooper, S. J. (2010). Simulation-based learning in nurse education: Systematic review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(1), 3–15. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2009.05240.x

CrossRef has since changed the DOI format to a more search-friendly URL:

  • Cant, P. R., & Cooper, S. J. (2010). Simulation-based learning in nurse education: Systematic review. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(1), 3–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2009.05240.x

This is a recent change, and not all publishers have adopted the new guidelines. As such, either format is acceptable as long as they are not mixed.

 

Correct

  • doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2009.05240.x
  • http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2009.05240.x

Incorrect

  • http://doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2009.05240.x
  • doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2009.05240.x

Note. Do not add a period at the end of the sequence or a put a space after the colon: doi:10.1234NOT doi: 10.1234. To look up an article's DOI, try the search feature at CrossRef.org's website.

 

Dissertation

Retrieved From the Web

  • Loyd, M., & MacGregor, C. (2010). Donor relations and stewardship and their relationship to private philanthropy in universities (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from https://mospace.umsystem.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10355/8338/Research.pdf?sequence=3

Retrieved From a Commercial Database

  • Smith, J. M. (2006). Meaning through narrative (Doctoral dissertation). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 143728)

Abstracted From Dissertation Abstracts International (DAI)

  • Davis, W. (1995). Level of acculturation of Asian American adolescents as a predictor of depression and suicidal ideation. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: Sciences and Engineering, 56(5), 2859.

DVD

Citing a DVD in APA Style is much like citing artwork or other audiovisual materials.

  • Kilbourne, J. (Cambridge Documentary Films). (1979). Killing us softly: Advertising’s image of women [DVD]. Available from http://www.jeankilbourne.com

E-Book

E-books typically have retrieval information (URL or DOI) instead of location and publisher. In square brackets, include the version you read.

  • Hopkins, D., & Jackson, D. (2003). Building the capacity for leading and learning [ebrary Reader version]. In A. Harris et al. (Eds.), Effective leadership for school improvement (pp. 84–104). Retrieved from http://books.google.ca/books?id=aWOgSqROcqEC&pg= PA84&lpg= . . .
  • Gladwell, M. (2008). Outliers: The story of success [Kindle DX version]. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com
  • Brill, P. (2004). The winner’s way [Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi:10.1036/007142363X

Editor as Author

Follow the same format as a regular book, but put the editor's name in the author position. Add the singluar (Ed.) or plural (Eds.) to clarify.

  • Connors, T. D. (Ed.). (2011). The volunteer management handbook: Leadership strategies for success. New York, NY: Wiley & Sons.
  • Tesser, A., Felson, B. R., & Suls, M. J. (Eds.). (2000). Psychological perspectives on self. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) Documents

Follow this format for citing a document from ERIC in APA Style. Retrieval info isn't required but can be provided if available.

  • Harris, A. (2002, September). Distributed leadership in schools: Leading or misleading? Paper presented at the British Educational Leadership Management & Administration Society Conference, Birmingham, England. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED481968). Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED481968.pdf

Fable

  • Aesop. (n.d.). The fox and the grapes. In J. Fields (Adapter), Aesop’s fables (pp. 12–13). Retrieved from http://books.google.ca/books?id=IYdCMfs9hgEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=aesop's+fables&hl=en&sa=X&ei=KxvIUK7hI8K6igLX04CoCQ&ved=0CDsQ6wEwAA

Facebook Post

Put the name of the individual or organization in the author position; write out the author's first name in full in square brackets. Also add [Facebook post] in square brackets after the title. If the post is long, as in the second example, include only the first 40 words.

  • Editarians. (2014, June 3). “Substitute 'damn' every time you're inclined to write 'very'; your editor will delete it and the writing will be just as it should be.” - Mark Twain [Facebook post]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/editarians/posts/868054296544092
  • >Harper, S. [Stephen]. (2015, April 17). It has been my immense honour to host the historic visit of Prime Minister Narendra Modi to Canada and to introduce him to Canada’s large, vibrant, prosperous - and I should add, hospitable - Indo-Canadian and Sikh-Canadian community. Prime Minister Modi’s [Facebook post]. Retrieved from https://www.facebook.com/pmharper/posts/10153164036822110

”Google” or “Internet” in a Title

Always capitalize Internet; don’t capitalize Google when used as a verb (e.g., “I'm going to google Editarians”).

  • DiLillo, D., & Gale, E. B. (2011). To google or not to google: Graduate students’ use of the Internet to access personal information about clients. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 5(3), 160–166. doi:10.1037/a0024441

Google Quotes (or Quotes From an Online Collection)

  • Wisdom Quotes. (2010). Arthur Ashe quote. Retrieved from http://www.wisdomquotes.com/quote/success-is-a-journey-not.html

Hyphenated Name

If any authors have hyphenated first names, keep the hyphen. Be sure to add a period after each initial.

  • Lin, H.-F. (2008). Determinants of successful virtual communities: Contributions from system characteristics and social factors. Information and Management, 45(8), 522–527. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378720608001055

Internal Document

If internal corporate documents are unpublished or publicly unavailable, cite them as personal communications. However, if you have been asked to include them (such as for a proposal or an OLP to be given to a sponsoring organization), give as much information as feasible.

  • Outar, O. (2010, December 14). Moving forward together [Internal document]. Presentation at the FYI meeting, Office of Advancement, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
  • OTfitwear. (2006). OTfitwear employees’ manual. Unpublished internal document.
  • Alberta Health Services. (2011). Calgary zone overcapacity protocol and escalation plan (Version 10) [Internal document]. Calgary, AB: Author.

Journal Article

Citing a journal article in APA style is a snap if you know the basic forms.

  • LastName, A. (2000). Title sentence case: Capitalize first word after colon. Journal Title, Vol(Issue), pp–pp. http://dx.doi.org/10.1234
  • LastName, A. (2000). Title sentence case: Capitalize first word after colon. Journal Title, Vol(Issue), pp–pp. doi:10.1234
  • LastName, A. (2000). Title sentence case: Capitalize first word after colon. Journal Title, Vol(Issue), pp–pp. Retrieved from http://example.com
  • Murphy, J. (2002). Reculturing the profession of educational leadership: New blueprints. Educational Administration Quarterly,38(2), 176–191. doi:10.1177/0013161X02382004

If the journal uses months or seasons, include those after the year:

  • Ellis, M. V., & Douce, L. A. (1994, May-June). Group supervision of novice clinical supervisors: Eight recurring issues. Journal of Counseling & Development, 72, 520–525. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6676.1994.tb00985.x
  • Bogo, M., Globerman, J., & Sussman, T. (2004, Winter). The field instructor as group worker: Managing trust and competition in group supervision. Journal of Social Work Education, 40(1), 13–26. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/23043976

Manuscript in Preparation

If the document is still in draft form, use the year in which the draft you read was produced and include "Manuscript in preparation" as the final sentence.

  • Dufour, S. (2011). Innovative approaches to social groupwork. Manuscript in preparation.

Manuscript Submitted for Publication

If the manuscript has been submitted for publication, again use the year the manuscript was written (not the year it was submitted) as your date. Do not provide the name of the journal or publisher to which the manuscript was submitted.

  • Lowe-Heistad, M., & Adams, D. (2013). Allied health: The influence of practice infrastructure on practice progress. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Changes may be made to the title or the authorship in the published version. You should check for updates before submitting your paper.

  • Lowe-Heistad, M., Adams, D., Giesbrecht, M., & Krahn, E. (2014). Investing in practice infrastructure influences practice progress. The Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice, 12(1). Retrieved from http://ijahsp.nova.edu/articles/Vol12Num1/pdf/Lowe.pdf

Manuscript Accepted for Publication

As soon as an article is accepted for publication, the year of publication changes to "in press"; you can include the name of the journal in the reference. Check for a publication date prior to submitting your paper.

  • Marcy, R. T. (in press). Breaking mental models as a form of creative destruction: The role of leader cognition in radical social innovations. The Leadership Quarterly. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1048984315000405

 

Missing Elements in Reference Entries

It's all well and good that the author goes here and the title goes there—but what do you do when an element is missing?

 

Author missing: Move the article title to the author position. This is often the case for newspaper articles or online dictionary definitions.

  • Title of document. (Year). Source.
  • Title of article. (Year). Periodical Title. Retrieved from http://example.com
  • School, interrupted. (2009). Toronto Star. Retrieved from http://www3.thestar.com/static/Flash/education/map.html

In the text citation, use the title (or a shortened version) in quotation marks : (“Title of Document in Title Case,” Year)

 

Date missing: Use "n.d." for "no date."

  • Moral. (n.d.). In Oxforddictionaries.com. Retrieved from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/moral?q=moral

Title missing: Add a description of the item in square brackets.

  • LastName, A. (Year). [Description of document]. Source.
  • Home, A. (2010). [Special needs adoptive parenting: Stakeholders’ views on parents’ experiences and support needs]. Unpublished raw data.

Multiple Authors From Same Source, No Date

What happens if you use n.d. for "no date" but there's more than one entry? Alphabetize according to title (ignoring the articles the, a, and an), and add -a, -b, etc. following n.d.

  • World Health Organization. (n.d-a). Rabies in the south-east Asia region. Retrieved from http://www.searo.who.int/LinkFiles/CDS_rabies.pdf.pdf
  • World Health Organization. (n.d-b). WHO recommendations on rabies post-exposure treatment and the correct technique of intradermal immunization against rabies. Retrieved from https://apps.who.int/emc-documents/rabies/docs/whoemczoo966.pdf

Music Recording

Follow this basic form for citing a song or other music recording:

  • Songwriter, A. (Year). Title of song [Recorded by B. B. Artist]. On Title of album [Medium of recording]. Location: Label.
  • Townsend, P. (1971). Behind blue eyes [Recorded by The Who]. On Who's next [Record]. London, England: Olympic Studios.

If the songwriter and artist are the same person, just remove the [Recorded by B. B. Artist]:

  • Cohen, L. (1969). You know who I am. On Songs from a room [CD]. Nashville, TN: Columbia.

Newspaper Article

The article title goes in the title position and the name of the newspaper is italicized.

  • Engelhardt, J. (2011, February 6). Spotlight set on students’ concussions. Daily Herald. Retrieved from http://www.dailyherald.com/article/20110205/entlife/702069981/
  • Yeshi, S. (2009, February 9). Possible rabies outbreak in Phuentsholing. Kuensel Online. Retrieved from http://www.kuenselonline.com/modules.php?name=News&file =article&sid=11957

If no author is stated, move the article title to the author position:

  • Nunavut struggles to offer Inuit-language education. (2011, June 28). CBC News. Retrieved from http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/north/nunavut-struggles-to-offer-inuit-language-education-1.1088863

Newspaper Column

  • Savage, D. (1991). Savage love [Syndicated column]. The Stranger. Seattle, WA: Index Newspapers.

Note. Use this form for letters to the editor as well.

 

Online Article With Organization as Author

  • RatePoint Inc. (2009, November 14). Small business retailers identify customer service a major advantage over larger retailers this holiday season. Retrieved from http://smallbiztrends.com/2009/11/small-business-retailers-customer-service-advantage-holiday-season.htm

Online Dictionary Definition

For the basic forms, see Paper Dictionary Definition. The only difference is that online dictionaries will have retrieval information instead of publisher and location information.

  • Community. (2012). In Merriam-Webster online dictionary. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/community

Text citation: (“Community,” 2012). If you're quoting, add the paragraph number.

 

Online Encyclopedia

  • Containerization. (1999). In Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved from http://site.ebrary.com
  • Lebanon. (2011). In The Columbia Encyclopedia (6th ed.). Retrieved from http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-Lebanon.html

Text citation: (“Lebanon,” 2011). If you're quoting, add the paragraph number.

 

Organization as Author

When the author is an organization, write the name out in full (even if you have used an abbreviation in the body of the paper). If it is also the publisher, type "Author" instead of repeating the name.

  • Nanaimo and Region Disability Resource Centre. (2010). The constitution and bylaws of the Nanaimo and region independent living resource centre association. Nanaimo, BC: Author.

Organization Report

Reports follow the basic form for books; see also Report:

  • University of Alberta, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry. (2006). Dare to discover academic plan submission 2007/08–2011/12. Retrieved from http://www.med.ualberta.ca/ Library/Documents/academic_plan.pdf
  • Research Assessment Exercise External Review Committee. (2010). Research assessment exercise final report. Retrieved from http://www.med.ualberta.ca/Library/Documents/ UofA_FoMD_RAE_Final_Report.pdf

Note. When a source includes a larger organization and a department within it, the larger organization is named first.

 

Paper Dictionary Definition

With editor

  • Word. (Year). In E. Editor (Ed.), Dictionary name (page numbers, edition, volume). Place published: Publisher.

Without editor

  • Word. (Year). In Dictionary name (page numbers, edition, volume). Place published: Publisher.

Periodical

For a full discussion on how to cite a periodical in APA Style, see Journal Article or Newspaper Article.

  • Lastname, A. (Year). Title sentence case: Capital only on first word after colon. Periodical Title, Vol(Issue), pp–pp. doi:10.123... or Retrieved from http://www.example.com...

Podcast

To cite a podcast in APA Style, give the producer's name in the author position. Include the full date and add [Podcast] after the title in square brackets.

  • McLean, S. (Writer & Producer). (2015, February 28). The yoga retreat [Podcast]. Retrieved from http://podcast.cbc.ca/mp3/podcasts/vinylcafe_20150228_98463.mp3

Presentation

A presentation or poster session at a meeting or symposium follows this basic form:

  • LastName, A. (Year, Month). Title of poster or presentation. Paper [or poster] presented at the Name of Association or Organization Meeting at City, State [or country].
  • Offord Group. (2010, May 18). Performance benchmarking. Presentation given at The Association of Fundraising Professionals, Golden Horseshoe Chapter Luncheon, Burlington, Ontario, Canada. Retrieved from http://www.theoffordgroup.com/pdfs/AFP%20 Golden%20Horseshoe_BenchmarkingMay%2018_final.pdf

Raw Data

Use square brackets to describe the data in place of a title.

  • Home, A. (2010). [Special needs adoptive parenting: Stakeholders’ views on parents’ experiences and support needs]. Unpublished raw data.

Report

Reports follow the basic form for books; see also Organization Report:

  • Rudd, T. (2014, February). Racial disproportionality in school discipline: Implicit bias is heavily implicated (Kirwan Institute Issue Brief). Columbus: Ohio State University, Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity. Retrieved from http://kirwaninstitute.osu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/racial-disproportionality-schools-02.pdf

Republished Work

For a republished work, include the original year of publication in parentheses at the end of the entry. No period follows the closing parenthesis.

  • Dewey, J. (2004). Democracy and education. New York, NY: Dover. (Original work published 1916)
  • Bakhtin, M. M. (1981). Discourse in the novel (C. Emerson & M. Holquist, Trans.). In M. Holquist (Ed.), The dialogic imagination: Four essays by M. M. Bakhtin (pp. 259–422). Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. (Original work published 1934)

Note. In text citations, include both years with a slash: (Bakhtin, 1981/1934; Dewey, 2004/1916). Citing a republished work is not the same as citing a new edition (see Book With Editions).

 

Same Surname, Same Year, Multiple Entries

When you have two entries authored by the same person(s), alphabetize according to title (ignoring the articles the, a, and an) and add letters after the year of publication to differentiate them in the text citations.

  • McGee, C. (2003a). Alignment: The key to collaborative work systems. In M. Beyerlein, C. McGee, G. Klein, J. Nemiro, & L. Broedling (Eds.), The collaborative work system fieldbook: Strategies, tools and techniques (pp. 201–216). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • McGee, C. (2003b). Creating a collaborative work system in an engineering department. In M. Beyerlein, C. McGee, G. Klein, J. Nemiro, & L. Broedling (Eds.), The collaborative work system fieldbook: Strategies, tools and techniques (pp. 243–258). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

What if the author and year and title are the same? Alphabetize according to the series order, whether that's a volume or issue number, or chronologically.

  • Outar, O. (2011a, February 2). Report from the chief advancement officer [Internal document]. Presentation at the FYI meeting, Office of Advancement, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.
  • Outar, O. (2011b, March 16). Report from the chief advancement officer [Internal document]. Presentation at the FYI meeting, Office of Advancement, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada.

How do you cite multiple-author entries with the same (or almost the same) surnames and the same year of publication? Consider these two examples, both of which would seem to shorten to Butterfield et al. (2009) in the text citations:

  • Butterfield, L. D., Borgen, W. A., & Amundson, N. E. (2009). The impact of a qualitative research interview on workers’ views of their situation. Canadian Journal of Counselling, 43(2), 120–130.
  • Butterfield, L. D., Borgen, W. A., Maglio, A. T., & Amundson, N. E. (2009). Using the enhanced critical incident technique in counselling psychology research. Canadian Journal of Counselling, 43(4), 265–282.

Instead of including the surname of only the first author, include as many subsequent surnames as needed to differentiate the two entries, followed by a comma and et al. In this case, Butterfield, Borgen, and Amundson (2009) would need all three names cited each time; the second entry would be cited Butterfield, Borgen, Maglio, et al. (2009).

 

Self-Published Book

A self-published book follows the same form as when the author is the publisher:

  • Wieliczko, J., & Wieliczko, A. (2007). Moje rodzinne drzewo [My family tree]. Baranowicze, Belarus: Author.

Series Editors

When there is a large editorial board, use et al. instead of writing out all editors' names.

  • Jung, C. G. (1990). The problem of types in the history of classical and medieval thought (H. G. Baynes, Trans.). In H. Read et al. (Series Eds.), The collected works of C. G. Jung: Psychological types (Vol. 6, pp. 8–66). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. (Original work published 1921)

Source in Foreign Language

If your source is written in a foreign language, include a translation in square brackets.

  • Boutin, G., & Camaraire, L. (2001). Accueillir et encadrer un stagiaire: Guide practique à l'usage de l'enseignant-formateur [Welcoming and mentoring an intern: Practical guide for the teacher-trainer]. Montreal, Canada: Éditions Nouvelles.
  • Diabetes perjudica sexualidad de mujeres [Diabetes impairs women’s sexuality]. (2012, July). El Universal, 1–2. Retrieved from http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/articulos/72417.html

Source Not the Author

What happens if your source is not the author of the book, but instead wrote the foreword or introduction? Vary the basic form to suit your circumstance.

  • Woodman, M. (1994). Foreword. In T. Mato, The black madonna within (pp. xi-xiv). Chicago, IL: Open Court.

Suffix (Jr., Sr., III) in Author Name

Retain the suffix, using a comma after the author's initials:

  • Bass, M. L., Curlette, W. L., Kern, R. M., & McWilliams, A. E., Jr. (2002). Social interest: A meta-analysis of a multidimensional construct. Journal of Individual Psychology, 58(1), 4–34.
  • Mertens, D. M., III. (2010). Research and evaluation in education and psychology: Integrating diversity with quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Supplemental Material

Given the availability of cheap online storage space, supplemental materials are quite common. They include raw data, video clips, photos, or other images that accompany an article, as well as CDs or DVDs that accompany a print publication. To cite in APA Style, simply make a note in square brackets:

  • Hirata, I., Jr. (1974). Proper playing conditions [Supplemental material]. The American Journal of Sports Medicine, 2(4), 228–234. doi:10.1177/036354657400200408

Technical or Research Report

Whenever you have a report number, include it in parentheses after the title and follow with a period.

  • Author, A. A. (2010). Title of work (Report No. 1234). Location: Publisher.
  • Kuh, G., & Whitt, E. (1988). The invisible tapestry: Culture in American colleges and universities (ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 1). Washington, DC: George Washington University, School of Education and Human Development.

A working paper series would follow the same format:

  • Oreopoulos, P. (2009). Why do skilled immigrants struggle in the labor market? A field experiment with six thousand resumes (National Bureau of Economic Research [NBER] Working Paper No. 15036). Retrieved from http://www.nber.org/papers/w15036/

Television Show or Movie

When citing a TV show in APA Style, or a motion picture, include key roles in the author position and use parentheses to clarify them. The type of recording (motion picture, television show, video clip) goes in square brackets following the title.

  • Smith, J. (Executive Producer), & Gulliver, R. (Director/Coproducer). (2002). Talk sex with Sue Johanson [Television series]. Toronto, ON: W Network.

Thesis

If the thesis is unpublished, make a note in parentheses after the title:

  • Bruccoleri, C. (2008). Perceptions of the principal’s role in facilitating and promoting social justice education in schools (Unpublished master’s thesis). University of Calgary, Canada.

If the thesis is published, include retrieval information, following the examples at Dissertation.

 

Translation

If a book has been translated, follow the basic form and include the translator's name (or names) following the title.

  • Laplace, P. S. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). New York, NY: Dover. (Original work published 1814)

Note. The text citation of this source would use both years with a slash: (Laplace, 1814/1951)

 

Translation With Editors

Follow the basic form for an edited book, adding the translator's name following the title.

  • Martín-Baró, I. (1994). The role of the psychologist (A. Aron, Trans.). In A. Aron & S. Corne (Eds.), Writings for a liberation psychology (pp. 33–46). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Tweet/Twitter Post

More and more, writers need to know how to cite a tweet in APA Style. In the author position, write the author's name and give his or her screen name in square brackets. If only the screen name is known, use that without square brackets. Be sure to provide the full date, and add a notation in square brackets following the title. A blog post is similar.

  • Author, A. [Twitter_handle]. (Year, Month Day). Text of the tweet [Twitter post]. Retrieved from http://example.com
  • Plewes, T. [@logicbiz]. (2015, April 20). The ideal length for social media. blog.bufferapp.com/optimal-length... [Twitter Post]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/logicbiz/status/590480409332477952
  • APA_Style. (2015, April 21). In #references, alphabetize books with no author or editor by the first significant word in the title #APAStyle [Twitter post]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/APA_Style/status/590570882457870336

University Course Material or Handbook

If the course material is available only by logging onto a private site (such as BlackBoard), or you're citing from an unpublished handout, it may be best to cite as a personal communication; readers will not be able to access the material through a reference list entry anyway: "Private security has evolved due in part to legislation, state budget restraints, population growth, and increased crime rates (P. Professor, personal communication, November 20, 2014)."

 

However, especially for shorter research papers, schools often ask students to include such resources in their references. If that's the case with you, adapt the basic forms to suit your needs, or follow the direction of your professor.

  • University of Leicester, Department of Criminology. (2014). Issues in criminal justice. Leicester, England: Author.
  • Professor, P. (2011). 495: Research methods course outline. Unpublished manuscript, Alder School of Professional Psychology, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Video or YouTube Clip

When citing a video or YouTube clip in APA Style, include a description in square brackets following the title.

  • Mali, T. (2012, March 16). The the impotence of proofreading [Video clip]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-c03YCBo3z8

Note. If you're quoting from the video in text citations, add the timestamp in lieu of a page number:

  • Mali (2012) noted that "there are several missed aches that a spell checker can't can't catch catch. For instant, if you accidentally leave out word your spell exchequer won't put it in you" (1:49).

Website or Web Page

If you are citing content from a specific web page, give its title and copy its link. Don't give a link to the homepage unless you're citing from that page.

  • PreventionWeb. (n.d.). Bhutan – disaster and risk profile. Retrieved from http://www.preventionweb.net/english/countries/statistics/?cid=20

If you are citing the website generally (not a specific page or document on that site), no reference entry is needed. Simply provide readers with the site address in the text:

  • "Purdue University's Online Writing Lab (https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/) is a useful resource for writers."
  • "I created the survey with SurveyMonkey (https://www.surveymonkey.com/) and used its tools to begin the data analysis process."

Wikipedia

Wikipedia entries are cited like any other online encyclopedia entry. Given that entries are subject to change, include the retrieval date.

  • Bhutan. (n.d.). In Wikipedia. Retrieved May 2, 2012, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhutan

Note. Many universities expressly disallow using Wikipedia as a reference source because it is not peer reviewed. You should confirm your program's requirements.

 

With

Authors noted as "with" are included in the reference entry in parentheses.

  • Young, D. W. (with Anthony, R. N.). (2010). Management control in nonprofit organizations (8th ed.). Cambridge, MA: The Crimson Press.

Note. Text citations include the main author only: Young (2010)